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Emerging Pathogens in Infectious Dermatoses

Article

Researchers said several geographic and demographic factors or changes have led to new skin manifestations.

Over the course of recent years, emerging pathogens have led to new, infectious dermatoses manifestations.

Nilima/AdobeStock
Nilima/AdobeStock

According to researchers involved in a recent review,1 there are 3 core areas of dermatovenerology that physicians should be cognizant of. These include resistance to anti-infectives, sexually transmitted infections, and emerging viral infections.

“Infectious dermatoses are seen very frequently in clinical practice,” review authors wrote. “This field of dermatology is highly dynamic and fascinating, not least due to geographic and demographic changes and widespread traveling activities. In the last few years, we have repeatedly encountered skin manifestations which were unusual or even completely new to us.”

Researchers cited several of these manifestations, including diagnosed cases of leishmaniasis, a parasitic disease that results in skin sores, amid the war in Syria; exanthema skin rash in patients with Zika virus; new clinical manifestations brought about by monkeypox; and blisters, itch, or rash associated with COVID-19 infection.

In dermatovenerology, antibiotics are often prescribed in cases of cutaneous infection, skin surgery, inflammatory dermatoses, and sexually transmitted infections (STIs).1 Pathogens such as Staphylococcus (S.) aureaus, Pseudonomas aeruginosa, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Mycoplasma genitalium, and Trichophyton indotineae are among the most common in dermatology, and some of these pathogens can be complex due to potential for antimicrobial or antibiotic resistance.1

In the United States, antibiotics are more often prescribed in the field of dermatology than in any other field,2 posing an additional challenge with this in mind.

“In each of these areas, it will be essential to utilize antibiotic treatment with critical reflection and in an optimized manner,” review authors wrote. “In all of these areas, we see a high need for further research as well as for the development and application of guidelines to ensure optimum use of antibiotics. In addition, other therapeutic approaches such as reinforcement of the immune system, host-specific treatments, and passive antibody treatments will gain importance in the future.”

Researchers said that further development, guidelines, and research will be crucial in expanding the medical field. These include diagnostic, therapeutic, and preventative developments.

“Looking to the future, we can say with confidence that dermato-infectiology will remain a challenging field given the recent dynamics,” review authors wrote. “Resistance to antimicrobials, sexually transmitted infections, and new viral infections, as well as additional rare infections, will certainly constitute central topics.”

References

  1. Fabri M, Stary G. Dermatovenerological infections. JDDG: Journal der Deutschen Dermatologischen Gesellschaft. 2023. doi:10.1111/ddg.15024
  2. Barbieri JS, Bhate K, Hartnett KP, Fleming-Dutra KE, Margolis DJ. Trends in oral antibiotic prescription in dermatology, 2008 to 2016. JAMA Dermatol. 2019;155(3):290-297. doi:10.1001/jamadermatol.2018.4944
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