TRANSEPIDERMAL WATER LOSS
While some studies reported comparable water barrier functions in both sexes, the 2013 study by Luebberding et al. showed that in men younger than 50 years old, transepidermal water loss was significantly lower in men, but on the forehead, cheeks and neck, it was higher than that of women.
Up until a 2012 study by Bailey et al., it was believed that sebum production between men and women was equal, but Bailey et al. described higher sebum levels in men on the face, except forehead. However, Luebberding et al. reported sebum content increased slightly on the forehead with age, but progressively decreased in women. In 2006, Roh et al. described a correlation between excessive sebum production and larger pores.
In 1975, Shuster et al. first documented the loss of skin collagen (which is associated with skin thinning) with age, particularly in women after 50 years. In men, however, it decreases equally over time.
But the most recent study on skin thickness Dr. Firooz and colleagues cited was in 2008 in which Mogensen et al. confirmed the results of a 2006 study by Gambichler et al. who found no differences in epidermal thickness among men and women. Their study was based on optical coherence tomography imaging.
Men tend to have lower acidic levels according to a 2012 study by Bailey et al. which differs from a 1987 finding Zlotogorski and a 1991 study by Wilhelm et al. that showed no sex differences.
A 2012 study by Firooz et al. reported that females had slightly higher skin elasticity than men, but the findings were not statistically significant, which is in agreement with a 2012 report by Bailey et al. who found that women had higher skin elasticity, but only in the abdominal region. The 2014 Luebberding et al. study found that: “The mechanical properties changed differently in men and woman over their lifetime and that female skin is less distensible but has a higher ability to recover after stretching in comparison with male skin.”
A 2011 study by Zhu et al. showed a “significant positive correlation between skin friction coefficient and stratum corneum hydration on the canthus and dorsal hand skin for women and on the forehead and dorsal hand skin for men.”
In 2013, Tsukahara et al. reported that among men and women between 65-75 years, women disproportionately had more wrinkles than men.